Posted in Events in History

The Last Letter of Mary Queen of Scots

In the very early hours of February 8, 1587, Mary Queen of Scots penned the last letter that she would ever write. She addressed her brother in law, Henry III, King of France, in hopes that he might be able to settle some of her financial affairs after she was gone.

In her letter, she speaks of her “papers” being confiscated and that she was unable to get them returned to her in order that she might take care of some of her personal matters. She requests that Henry pay her servants the money that is due them out of the good Christian charity in his own heart.

Mary also complained that her chaplain (almoner) had been taken away from her and he was unable to hear her confession or give her the Last Sacrament. She does not waiver in her confession of the Catholic faith and maintains her innocence in the two points on which she is charged: her Catholic faith, and her God-given right to the English throne. She points out that, even if she were a subject of English law, she would not be guilty of any crime.

Mary had requested that her body be conveyed to France, where she wished to be buried. She laments to Henry that her request was denied (by Elizabeth). She was initially buried five months after her execution in Peterborough Cathedral but was moved to Westminster Abbey in 1612, nine years after her son took the English throne.

Below is the English translation of Mary’s last letter, courtesy of the National Library of Scotland.

Queen of Scotland
8 Feb. 1587

Sire, my brother-in-law, having by God’s will, for my sins I think, thrown myself into the power of the Queen my cousin, at whose hands I have suffered much for almost twenty years, I have finally been condemned to death by her and her Estates. I have asked for my papers, which they have taken away, in order that I might make my will, but I have been unable to recover anything of use to me, or even get leave either to make my will freely or to have my body conveyed after my death, as I would wish, to your kingdom where I had the honour to be queen, your sister and old ally.

Tonight, after dinner, I have been advised of my sentence: I am to be executed like a criminal at eight in the morning. I have not had time to give you a full account of everything that has happened, but if you will listen to my doctor and my other unfortunate servants, you will learn the truth, and how, thanks be to God, I scorn death and vow that I meet it innocent of any crime, even if I were their subject. The Catholic faith and the assertion of my God-given right to the English crown are the two issues on which I am condemned, and yet I am not allowed to say that it is for the Catholic religion that I die, but for fear of interference with theirs. The proof of this is that they have taken away my chaplain, and although he is in the building, I have not been able to get permission for him to come and hear my confession and give me the Last Sacrament, while they have been most insistent that I receive the consolation and instruction of their minister, brought here for that purpose. The bearer of this letter and his companions, most of them your subjects, will testify to my conduct at my last hour. It remains for me to beg Your Most Christian Majesty, my brother-in-law and old ally, who have always protested your love for me, to give proof now of your goodness on all these points: firstly by charity, in paying my unfortunate servants the wages due them – this is a burden on my conscience that only you can relieve:    further, by having prayers offered to God for a queen who has borne the title Most Christian, and who dies a Catholic, stripped of all her possessions. As for my son, I commend him to you in so far as he deserves, for I cannot answer for him. I have taken the liberty of sending you two precious stones, talismans against illness, trusting that you will enjoy good health and a long and happy life. Accept them from your loving sister-in-law, who, as she dies, bears witness of her warm feeling for you. Again I commend my servants to you. Give instructions, if it please you, that for my soul’s sake part of what you owe me should be paid, and that for the sake of Jesus Christ, to whom I shall pray for you tomorrow as I die, I be left enough to found a memorial mass and give the customary alms.

This Wednesday, two hours after midnight.
Your very loving and most true sister,   Mary R

Posted in Events in History

The Coronation of Mary Queen of Scots

unknown artist

Already Queen

Nine month old Mary Stuart was crowned queen of Scotland on September 9, 1543.  She had actually become queen on December 14, 1542, when she was only six days old. This was the day that her father had died, making her the youngest female to become queen.

A Strong Advocate

Mary’s mother, Mary of Guise, had schemed and plotted for months, in an effort to avoid Henry VIII’s offers of marriage to her daughter. He wanted the little queen for his son, the future Edward VI. However, Mary of Guise, being a French Catholic, wanted nothing to do with the Protestant Englishmen. Although James Hamilton, the Earl of Arran, had been appointed as regent to the young queen, her mother was very much in control of the young child’s comings and goings. Her wit and political savviness enabled her to remove the young Mary from Linlithgow Palace, where she was born, and where Arran felt he had more control over her. By July, the baby had been moved to Stirling Castle, Mary Guise’s castle of choice. This removed the infant queen out from under Arran’s control and allowed her mother more time and freedom to plot how to free Mary from the reach of the English.

The Coronation

Mary Queen of Scots When an Infant, Benjamin Robert Haydon, 1842

On the ninth of September, Mary was carried to the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle and crowned Queen of Scotland. It was a very solemn affair, having conferred not only civil legitimacy on the young queen, but it also validated her religious rights as queen as well.

According to biographer, John Guy, three items of significance were used during the ceremony. The Earl of Arran carried the crown, the Earl of Lennox held the scepter, and the Earl of Argyll carried the sword of state. The scepter was given to James IV in the 1490s by Pope Alexander VI, and the sword was obtained from Pope Julius II in 1507. The crown had been worn by Mary’s father, James V, at her mother’s coronation in 1540. These three items are known collectively as the honors of Scotland and are still on display at Edinburgh Castle today. However, they were not used together until the coronation of Mary.

Honors of Scotland courtesy of DorothyDunnett.co.uk

The crown was, of course, too big for a baby to wear. Instead, Cardinal David Beaton held the crown over Mary’s head. He also anointed her with holy oil and said a blessing over her during the ceremony.

Traditionally, heralds would read aloud the royal genealogy, a list of titles and honors that could take up to a half an hour to recite. However, the infant queen had a different plan. She squawked and wailed throughout the ceremony, causing the typical proceedings to be cut short.

The coronation may have been a solemn affair, but it was followed by banqueting, masques, and dancing afterward.

Works cited:

John Guy, Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart

http://www.dorothydunnett.co.uk/visits-edinburgh.php

Posted in castles, Events in History

The Ghost Piper of Duntrune Castle

On the northern banks of Loch Crinan, in the western part of Scotland stands a picturesque little castle named Duntrune. Built in the 12th century, it has withstood the tumultuous history of Scotland to remain one of the best and longest preserved castles that is still occupied in all of Scotland today.

Though Duntrune is a lovely castle in a beautiful setting, it was an event that took place there in the mid 1600’s that first drew my attention to it.  

Duntrune Castle

A Nasty Civil War

The backdrop of our little ghost story is the English civil war that took place between King Charles I and his disagreeing Parliament. Charles eventually dissolved Parliament and decided to rule without them. This threw the country into a civil war that wasn’t satisfied until Charles was dethroned and beheaded in 1649.

This is a very simplistic explanation of events, for there were underlying causes that put the two ruling forces at odds with each other. One of those causes was deeply rooted in religious disagreements. At first, Scotland made an attempt to steer clear of the problems in England, but it soon became apparent that they would eventually be dragged into the quarrel.

Two Sides of the Same War:

The English Civil War was one component of a bigger war known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. This not only involved the people of England, but Scotland and Ireland were also thrust into the disputes between Charles and his Parliament.

At the heart of the Scottish involvement in this war were the Covenanters and the Royalists. The Covenanters had their roots in Presbyterianism, a movement that had shaken Scotland over a hundred years earlier and had caused dissent between the Catholic Scots and those who fought for reformation. The Covenanters were also known as Parliamentarians, due to their support of Parliament over King Charles. The other faction was the Royalists. They were also known as the King’s Scottish army. They were loyal to the king and supported King Charles’ policies of governance in England.

Riot Against Anglican Prayer Book, 1637. ~Wikimedia Commons
“Riot sparked by Jenny Geddes over the imposition of Charles I’s Book of Common Prayer in Presbyterian Scotland. Civil disobedience soon turned into armed defiance.” Wikipedia

Enter: The Highlanders

The diverse clans of the Highlands were of differing opinions on Charles  and his policies. This was due in part to the many cultural and religious beliefs held by the disparate clans. When it came time to choose sides, some clans followed King Charles (the Royalists), and others joined the Covenanters who sided with Parliament.

Amongst these divided Highlanders were two clans that knew hundreds of years of quarreling. These were the infamous Campbells and the MacDonalds. The bad feelings between these two clans make the American Hatfield’s and McCoy’s feud look like a playground scuffle. Even to this day, you can still find places in Scotland that refuse to serve patrons who are in possession of a certain clan name of Campbell.

Historians seem to think that a lot of the riff between the two clans has been blown out of proportion. However, the fact still remains that in the mid-17th century, when there were sides to be chosen, the Campbells and the MacDonalds happened to find themselves on opposing sides of King Charles’ war. And this was the heart of the problem concerning Duntrune Castle. 

The Stuff of Folklore

Several versions this tale can be found. Here I will give the account that I first heard. Readers may wish to do further reading and research and come across another tale that you find more believable or fascinating.

The MacDonald clan was led by a hulk of a man that came to be known by the name Colkitto. He was a master at warfare and not only fought for his own clan but was also known to have assisted Clan MacIntyre of Glen Coe. In thanks for his assistance, the MacIntyre chief gave Colkitto his favorite piper. He was to accompany Colkitto and the MacDonald warriors on their campaign.

And so it was that when the MacDonald clan came upon Duntrune Castle in the middle of the night, the MacIntyre piper was also there to take part in the action. The control of the castle was wrestled from the Campbells and left in the capable hands of a few of Colkitto’s men along with his prized piper. Colkitto himself boarded a boat and set sail across the Sound of Jura to continue on his campaign, leaving his men to hold down the fort until his return.

When the Campbells launched a counter-attack to regain control of Duntrune, all of the warriors of the MacDonald clan were killed, except for the piper. He alone was left, with the intent that he would play his pipes and entertain the Campbell clan.

And that he did, until one day Colkitto’s boat was spotted on the Sound. With permission, the MacIntyre piper played a song that he had prepared in honor of his leader’s return, “Piobaireachd-dhum- Naomhaid” or in English, “The Piper’s Warning to His Master”. Soon the haunting notes drifted out across the water, reaching Colkitto’s ears. But it didn’t take long for the great chieftain to notice something odd about the melody. The piper had intentionally misplayed some of the notes in an effort to send a warning message to Colkitto.

Colkitto, understanding the piper’s intent, turned his boat around and never completed his destination to Duntrune. When the Campbell clan realized what the piper had done, they called for the piper’s punishment.

And what greater punishment could there be, than to disable the man, preventing him from ever being able to play the pipes again? The MacIntyre piper’s hands were cut off, and he eventually bled to death from his injuries.

I’m not sure if this is the exact version of The Piper’s Warning to His Master that the MacIntyre piper played for Colkitto, but have a listen.

The “Ghost” Part of This Little Story

So, what’s so ghostly about this sad story? For hundreds of years there have been stories of banging noises and flying objects heard and sighted at Duntrune Castle. There have even been reports of a mysterious sound of bagpipes playing on occasion. For many years people actually thought the story of the mutilated piper was just that—a story. But while a renovation project was underway at Duntrune in the late 1800’s, an Episcopalian bishop reported that workers found the skeletal remains of a man. They unearthed the bones: skull, arms, legs, torso—everything was there—except for his hands. The remains were reburied outside of the castle walls in an unmarked grave. Later, another excavation uncovered the bones of two hands, without a body to go with it, buried under one of the rooms of the castle.

If you are ever in Argyll, perhaps you can venture to see Duntrune Castle. See if you can spot a lonely specter dutifully piping out his warning across the salty waters of Loch Crinan. Oh, and let me know how he does it without his hands.

Posted in Events in History

The Arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots

“In my end is my beginning.”

The celebrated poet, T.S. Eliot may have penned these famous words in his poem, “East Coker”, however, he was not the first person to use them.  Mary, Queen of Scots took this phrase as a motto sometime during her long captivity in England. Embroidering the words on her canopy of state, they served as a sort of prophetic epitaph of her life, that ended so tragically at the hands of the Queen of England, Elizabeth I.

Some scholars speculate that she may have been referring to her late grandfather-in-law, Francis I’s symbol of the salamander with these words. In medieval times the salamander had an allegorical element that symbolized a righteous person’s ability to withstand fire, just as the three Hebrew children in the Biblical story, emerged unharmed from the fiery furnace.

Medieval manuscript depicting a salamander enduring the flames.
National Library of France, Department of Manuscripts, French 2286, fol. 10r.

Mary was an unrepentant Catholic. She never swayed from her religious beliefs, even though it caused heartache for her for most of her life. It is no secret that she considered herself a martyr for her Catholic faith (even going so far as to wearing a red petticoat, the martyr’s color, at her execution). She is known to have told her cousin, the Duke of Guise:

“For myself, I am resolute to die for my religion. . . With God’s

help, I shall die in the Catholic faith and to maintain it

constantly. . .without doing dishonor to the race of

 Lorraine, who are accustomed to die the sustenance of the faith.”

In her Essay on Adversity, written in 1580, Mary wrote of the lives of rulers:

“Tribulation has been to them as a furnace to fine gold—a means

of proving their virtue, of opening their so-long blinded eyes, and

of teaching them to know themselves and their own failings.”

Perhaps Mary saw herself emerging victorious on the other side of this mortal life with that everlasting life promised to believers that can only come after death.

Mary’s words can also be a bit predictive. They are a sort of foretelling of the immortal, romanticized life that she has taken on since her death. She is, beyond a doubt, one of the most controversial figures in Scottish history. Whether you believe she was complicit in her second husband’s death, and guilty of plotting a treasonous over-taking of the English throne, one cannot deny that she has had more than her fair share of 15 minutes of fame, and she remains one of those characters in history that we non-participants either love to love, or love to hate.

A little back history

After her disastrous second marriage to Lord Henry Darnley ended in his death by strangulation, Mary was kidnapped, raped and accepted a marriage proposal by another man accused in the death of her husband (we’ll save that story for another day.)  When Mary followed through with the marriage barely two months after Darnley’s death, suspicions were heightened concerning Mary’s involvement with Darnley’s murder.

Panel paintings of Mary, Lord Darnley, and James Bothwell on wall of the Mary Queen of Scots House in Jedburgh, Scotland~photo: Tonya U. Brown~2017

Soon Scottish lords were seeking to implicate Mary in Darnley’s murder as well, and she was forced to abdicate her throne to her one-year old son, James. When attempts to raise an army to take back her throne failed, she ended up imprisoned at Loch Leven Castle where she eventually miscarried Bothwell’s twins. She finally escaped ten months later with the help of one of her sympathizes.  

Surrender of Mary Queen of Scots at Carberry Hill, 1567. Illustration for the Historical Scrap Book (Cassel, c 1880).

Mary attempted a second time to raise an army, trying in vain to defeat her leading opponent, her half-brother James Stewart, Earl of Moray. When she was not successful, she fled to England, hoping to obtain help from her cousin, Queen Elizabeth.

Any indications of sympathy that Mary may have received from Elizabeth were short lived. She was quickly taken into custody and remained so, moving from residence to residence under house arrest for the next 19 years. Although records indicate that she led a somewhat pampered life while in England (after all—she was a queen), the fact remained that Mary was still a captive of Elizabeth’s. With her health declining, she made it no secret that she would use any means necessary to escape her situation. This was not a confession to treason, but merely an admission that she had tried on more than one occasion to escape.

 A victim of one scheming nobleman after another, she continued to be a political pawn, having no control of her own life. When her private letters were produced for Elizabeth to read, the contents were condemning. Through plots originating at the hands of her supporters in an attempt to rescue her, and plots formed at the hands of her enemies in an effort to entrap her, Mary endured some of the most farcical examples of court intrigue that have ever existed and rivals anything even Hollywood could come up with.

The day finally came

On August 11, 1586, Mary was arrested for her part in another murder plot to kill Elizabeth that would eventually come to be called the Babington Plot.  Mary’s long-time English foe, Elizabeth’s Secretary of State, William Cecil, and another of Elizabeth’s secretaries, Sir Francis Walsingham, had finally succeeded in scrounging up something to pin on the Scottish queen.

Forged postscript to a letter by Mary Queen of Scots to Anthony Babington and alongside Babington’s record of the cipher used~The National Archives~United Kingdom

By this time, Mary was suffering from arthritis, making movement in her arms and legs very painful. She could not walk without assistance and was confined to a bed most of the time. She testified in court that due to her illness, she had no desire to take the reins of government again. She also complained that her letters and papers had all been taken from her, and that she had not been given any counsel as to how to proceed in her trial. The most adamant of her complaints, however, was the fact that since  she was not an English subject, they had no right whatsoever, to try her under English law.

Her pleas and complaints went unheard, and after Elizabeth’s attempts to end her Scottish problem with other means had failed, she finally signed the death warrant to execute Mary on February 1 the following year. She was executed seven days later. Mary was 44 years of age when she laid down her life in typical martyr fashion, her red petticoat announcing to the world the glorious death to which she had been called.  

Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots~Robert Herdman~Glasgow Museums
Notice the red petticoat peeping out at the bottom of her gown?

The following pictures were taken at the Mary Queen of Scots House in Jedburgh, Scotland when I was there in 2017. They depict examples of the high demand for relics pertaining to Mary and her fascinating story. There are many more relics at Jedburgh, but here I have posted only the ones that pertain to this post.

One final note of interest…

If you are interested in seeing some of the places that Mary stayed after her initial arrest in Scotland in 1567, or if you want to start at the beginning of her life in 1542, this is an excellent book. The author is Andrew Burnet.

Mary Was Here by Andrew Burnet
Mary Queen of Scots~Unknown Artist~Hermitage Museum~St. Petersburg, Russia